Fireplace Heat Deflector
Fireplace Heat Deflector -Fireplaces were an essential feature of Arts and Crafts design. In the era where the Movement drew its inspiration the hearth was only beginning to be sited on the sidewalls of great halls inside houses of the very most rich. So the style adopted by Arts and Crafts would have been a 19th century day pastiche of the was actually constructed in the Wars with the Roses Fireplace Heat Deflector. Designs were often in brick although stone could be used where it would have been a local material.
The fireplaces were large, often rounded and had an inglenook feel. Bricks would vary in space, with courses laid vertically as well as conventionally or perhaps in a herringbone pattern. Later designs often included tiles as well as the form of sinuous designs which are connected with Charles Rennie Macintosh and Art Nouveau Fireplace Heat Deflector. Tiles probably have a pastoral scene or even a complex flower motif as well as the Rockwood Pottery that produced early designs was closely connected with Morris & Co, the organization that William Morris ran from 1875. We still experience the Arts & Crafts legacy in mock Tudor houses, last century wall panelling and old brick fireplaces. Like almost all styles with the last 190 years the buzz declines just to reappear up to hundred years later.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh is certainly one with the greatest influences on architecture this century. His all too short career spanned the turn with the century and produced various innovative buildings and interiors around his birthplace of Glasgow. Some see Mackintosh as a modernist, others since the link between Art Nouveau and Art Deco. He was probably neither, drawing his inspiration the maximum amount of from classical shapes since the new industrial art that was beginning to prevail throughout Europe.
Mackintosh has not been just an architect. His design brilliance extended to the interiors with the buildings that he designed. Together with his wife Margaret, Mackintosh considered that the interior layout was as important since the exterior form and designed individual items to compliment the total look with the building. Fireplaces were, as part of his opinion, the 'glowing focus with decorative and symbolic interest'. It was important for him that each design should meld in to the room and turn into personalised for the needs with the owner Fireplace Heat Deflector. His most famous brief was Hill House in Dumbarton, that they designed for the publisher, Blackie. In this house each fireplace is different. The family room design has niches for ornaments, while the hearth inside library links areas with the room to create a whole. Each has been weighed and tailored to ensure that is an element with the room, not only a fitting.
Today's fireplaces inside Mackintosh style usually reflect his graphic style in lieu of his design flair. Art Nouveau roses interpreted by Mackintosh are common features and evoke turn with the century style. His designs for mantelpieces and finish fireplaces are so personal for 'off the shelf' production and definately will remain unique inside houses where these were installed.
Whilst the naming of Charles Rennie Macintosh first comes to mind when early 1900s architecture is mentioned, it is probably Edwin Lutyens that has left the highest impression on country houses and official buildings inside UK and beyond Fireplace Heat Deflector. Macintosh, from his base in Glasgow rose like a shooting star round the turn with the last century just to disappear as quickly only for ten to fifteen a lot of architectural design. Lutyens, often in addition to garden designer Gertrude Jykell, produced houses in a wonderful late Victorian / Edwardian vernacular style that still impresses today.
An examination of most of Lutyens Country House designs highlights the benefit that he, and more importantly his clients, placed on the design of fireplaces. Many of his major, well-known designs - Castle Drogo, Great Dixter, Little Thakeham among others - feature over 10 fireplaces - many specially engineered to compliment the ambience with the room.
Barton St. Mary near East Grinstead can be a great example. Designed in a rendered, South of England style, Barton St. Mary resembles two cottages joined together. Internally, massive stone inglenooks, wealth of oak beams and vaulted ceilings evoke a time much sooner than its actual turn-of-the-last century construction. In the dining area a sizable fireplace with projecting shelf and converging firesides in herringbone brickwork includes a beautiful simplicity that is certainly almost ageless.
Fireplace Heat Deflector
Built for local industrialist, Arthur Hemmingway, Heathcote near Ilkley is altogether a different proposition from Barton St. Mary. Finished in local stone, it's an imposingly grand house with echoes of a stately home. Internally neo-classical design reigns with pillars and ornate coving. In the Dining Room we have seen a simple bolection design using a massive Adamesque fireplace design superimposed over it. This can be a strange combination, possibly specified by Mr. Hemingway himself. Bolection designs, using unpretentious moulded shape were popular, some within larger Adam-style designs, others forming the complete fireplace were common in other Lutyens houses - Great Maytham in Kent, Nashdom in Taplow, Berkshire and Temple Dinsley in Hertfordshire. Lutyens was often associated with modernisation of older houses where yet again the simplicity with the bolection design helped blend new with old. Even today, bolection fireplaces are extremely much admired.
Lutyens designs were undoubtedly extremely influential inside the select moneyed class who employed him. However, it had been Minsterstone in addition to a many other local manufacturers of stone, marble and brick designs who adapted his designs for the smaller fireplaces to cater for the emerging middle class. Many of the hearth manufacturers because of this era have disappeared leaving Minsterstone, using its 120-year history as a lone survivor from your time in the event the gap between rich and poor was much larger than it is today.
The dawning with the last century also saw various different stylistic influences on the hearth in a way that no other century had experienced. The heavy, gothic style that so typified the middle with the Victorian era had been produced in vast numbers. But present and liked by the cognoscenti was the powerful Art Nouveau look, which have taken the united states by storm, pursuing the Paris Exhibition of 1881.
The roots of Art Nouveau lay inside great European capitals of Vienna and Paris where the artistic elite rebelled from the constraints with the previous generation. The movement took fully briefed the certain fireplaces, for so very long the trade mark with the suburban continuing development of our large cities, and added sinuous ornamentation, which gave these utilitarian items a modern look. Tiles on tile sliders begun to appear in a wealth of designs inspired by rural images as well as classic Art Nouveau references such since the grapevine.
William Morris' Arts & Crafts movement continued to exert an influence well in to the last century. The inglenook had been a trendy revival feature of Arts and Crafts' fireplaces because it created seating round the fire - the only warm part with the house. In fact Morris' followers liked many top features of medieval and Tudor fireplaces they will adapted and integrated into their designs - some adding features like overmantels which would have never been part with the original.
The 1920s searched for a different approach that combined industry with art. After the First World war, revival was still being the name with the game for the middle classes who wanted their suburban houses gentrified with mock Tudor beams and fireplaces. However, the rich as well as the artistic longed for designs that reflected the twin ethos of labor and leisure.
Art Deco filled this void and came to be at the 1925 Paris based exhibition titled 'L'Exposition Internationale des Arts Deco et Industriels Modernes'. At the time, the style was known as Paris 25. The concepts behind the Art Deco included:
The sacrifice of decorative detail to operate.
The rejection of history in favour of modern ideas
The adaptation and adoption of industry - its designs and methods. Art Deco design was almost immediately translated in to a wealth of designs, which used traditional fireplace materials, but in a more spectacular, avant-garde way. Simple understated lines were tripped using reflective chrome, lacquered wood or tiles to present a modern feeling, which shouted 'Modern!' without having to be too ornate.
Like many with the other trends, Art Deco fairly the preserve with the well off. The newly enriched suburban middle classes were more likely to have a simple tiled fireplace, normally in green beige or buff. Designs could reflect the Art Deco influence with the Mexican stepped pyramid or could be asymmetric, influenced by the social realism movement. Many 1930s tiled fireplaces also featured a wooden surround or mantelshelf in English oak.
In the shires the fire surround was more likely to be in a neighborhood material, - brick inside South of England, stone inside North and tiles around Stoke on Trent. Designs of these areas weren't so influenced by decorative trends. Functional features like bread ovens and hooks for hanging cooking pots lingered on entirely or partial use inside the country cottage well in to the 1930s and 40s.
World War II witnessed a total halt inside house building programme as resources were funnelled into replacing and repairing bombed houses and inside late 1940s the push to re-house families saw a get off conventional fireplaces in favour with the 'easy to install' electric fire. However since the UK became more prosperous in the 1950s local authorities and house builders begun to install tiled fireplaces again setting up a regular demand for the slabbed designs produced by members with the National Fireplace Manufacturer's Association, which have been formed in 1945Fireplace Heat Deflector. These fireplaces were made as a result of specification in lieu of including any design flair and, through the middle with the decade, even wooden mantel shelf had disappeared.