Monogrammed Fireplace Screen -Fireplaces were an essential feature of Arts and Crafts design. In the era where the Movement drew its inspiration the fireside was just beginning to be sited on the sidewalls of great halls inside the houses of the very rich. So the style adopted by Arts and Crafts would have been a 1800s day pastiche of what was constructed in the Wars in the Roses Monogrammed Fireplace Screen. Designs were often in brick although stone may be used where it would have been a local material.
The fireplaces were large, often rounded along an inglenook feel. Bricks would vary in space, with courses laid vertically and also conventionally or possibly inside a herringbone pattern. Later designs often included tiles along with the form of sinuous designs that are associated with Charles Rennie Macintosh and Art Nouveau Monogrammed Fireplace Screen. Tiles may have a pastoral scene or even a complex flower motif along with the Rockwood Pottery that produced early designs was closely associated with Morris & Co, the company that William Morris ran from 1875. We still accept the Arts & Crafts legacy in mock Tudor houses, last century wall panelling and old brick fireplaces. Like practically all styles in the last 190 years very good declines only to reappear approximately a hundred years later.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh is regarded as one in the greatest influences on architecture this century. His very short career spanned the turn in the century and produced many different innovative buildings and interiors around his birthplace of Glasgow. Some see Mackintosh as a modernist, others as the link between Art Nouveau and Art Deco. He was probably neither, drawing his inspiration as much from classical shapes as the new industrial art that has been beginning to prevail across Europe.
Mackintosh was not just an architect. His design brilliance extended on the interiors in the buildings which he designed. Together with his wife Margaret, Mackintosh believed that the lining layout was as important as the exterior form and designed individual what to compliment the whole look in the building. Fireplaces were, as part of his opinion, the 'glowing focus with decorative and symbolic interest'. It was important for him that many design should meld to the room and be personalised to the needs in the owner Monogrammed Fireplace Screen. His most popular brief was Hill House in Dumbarton, that they designed to the publisher, Blackie. In this house each fireplace is different. The family room design has niches for ornaments, while the fireside inside the library links areas in the room to create a whole. Each has been considered and tailored so that is an element in the room, not really a fitting.
Today's fireplaces inside the Mackintosh style usually reflect his graphic style as opposed to his design flair. Art Nouveau roses interpreted by Mackintosh are typical features and evoke turn in the century style. His designs for mantelpieces and complete fireplaces are too personal for 'off the shelf' production and may remain unique inside the houses where they were installed.
Whilst the Charles Rennie Macintosh first comes to mind when early 1900s architecture is mentioned, it is probably Edwin Lutyens who may have left the greatest impression on country houses and official buildings inside the UK and beyond Monogrammed Fireplace Screen. Macintosh, from his base in Glasgow rose like a shooting star around the turn in the last century only to disappear as quickly only for ten to fifteen numerous years of architectural design. Lutyens, often as well as garden designer Gertrude Jykell, produced houses inside a wonderful late Victorian / Edwardian vernacular style that still impresses today.
An examination of most of Lutyens Country House designs highlights the benefit which he, and above all his clients, placed on the design of fireplaces. Many of his major, well-known designs - Castle Drogo, Great Dixter, Little Thakeham and others - feature over 10 fireplaces - many specially engineered to enhance the ambience in the room.
Barton St. Mary near East Grinstead is often a case in point. Designed inside a rendered, South of England style, Barton St. Mary resembles two cottages joined together. Internally, massive stone inglenooks, useful oak beams and vaulted ceilings evoke an era much earlier than its actual turn-of-the-last century construction. In the dining area a big fireplace with projecting shelf and converging firesides in herringbone brickwork includes a beautiful simplicity that is certainly almost ageless.
Monogrammed Fireplace Screen
Built for local industrialist, Arthur Hemmingway, Heathcote near Ilkley is altogether some other proposition from Barton St. Mary. Finished in local stone, it is really an imposingly grand house with echoes of a stately home. Internally neo-classical design reigns with pillars and ornate coving. In the Dining Room we percieve an easy bolection design having a massive Adamesque fireplace design superimposed over it. This is often a strange combination, possibly specified by Mr. Hemingway himself. Bolection designs, with their unpretentious moulded shape were highly sought after, some within larger Adam-style designs, others forming the complete fireplace were common in other Lutyens houses - Great Maytham in Kent, Nashdom in Taplow, Berkshire and Temple Dinsley in Hertfordshire. Lutyens was often linked to modernisation of older houses where once more the simplicity in the bolection design helped blend new with old. Even today, bolection fireplaces have become much admired.
Lutyens designs were undoubtedly extremely influential inside the select moneyed class who employed him. However, it absolutely was Minsterstone as well as a myriad of other local manufacturers of stone, marble and brick designs who adapted his designs to the smaller fireplaces to cater to the emerging middle class. Many of the fireside manufacturers because of this era have disappeared leaving Minsterstone, having its 120-year history as a lone survivor from your time in the event the gap between rich and poor was much larger than it is today.
The dawning in the last century also saw many different different stylistic influences on the fireside inside a way that few other century had experienced. The heavy, gothic style that so typified the middle in the Victorian era was still being produced in vast numbers. But present and well-liked by the cognoscenti was the powerful Art Nouveau look, that have taken the country by storm, following Paris Exhibition of 1881.
The roots of Art Nouveau lay inside the great European capitals of Vienna and Paris the location where the artistic elite rebelled contrary to the constraints in the previous generation. The movement took on board the cast iron fireplaces, for way too long the trade mark in the suburban progression of our large cities, and added sinuous ornamentation, which gave these utilitarian items today's look. Tiles on tile sliders began to appear inside a useful designs inspired by rural images and also classic Art Nouveau references such as the grapevine.
William Morris' Arts & Crafts movement continued to exert an influence well in on the last century. The inglenook was a trendy revival feature of Arts and Crafts' fireplaces mainly because it created seating around the fire - some of the only warm part in the house. In fact Morris' followers liked many options that come with medieval and Tudor fireplaces that they adapted and incorporated into their designs - some adding features like overmantels which will do not have been part in the original.
The 1920s searched for some other approach that combined industry with art. After the First World war, revival was still the name in the game to the middle classes who wanted their suburban houses gentrified with mock Tudor beams and fireplaces. However, the rich along with the artistic longed for designs that reflected the twin ethos of training and leisure.
Art Deco filled this void and was born at the 1925 Paris based exhibition titled 'L'Exposition Internationale des Arts Deco et Industriels Modernes'. At the time, the style was often called Paris 25. The concepts behind the Art Deco included:
The sacrifice of decorative detail to work.
The rejection of history in favour of modern ideas
The adaptation and adoption of industry - its designs and methods. Art Deco design was presently translated into a useful designs, which used traditional fireplace materials, but inside a more spectacular, avant-garde way. Simple understated lines were trigger by way of reflective chrome, lacquered wood or tiles to provide today's feeling, which shouted 'Modern!' without having to be too ornate.
Like many in the other trends, Art Deco tended to be the preserve in the wealthy. The newly enriched suburban middle classes were prone to have an easy tiled fireplace, normally in green beige or buff. Designs could reflect the Art Deco influence in the Mexican stepped pyramid or may be asymmetric, relying on the social realism movement. Many 1930s tiled fireplaces also featured a wooden surround or mantelshelf in English oak.
In the shires the hearth surround was prone to maintain a neighborhood material, - brick inside the South of England, stone inside the North and tiles around Stoke on Trent. Designs of these areas are not so relying on decorative trends. Functional features including bread ovens and hooks for hanging cooking pots lingered on completely or partial use inside the country cottage well to the 1930s and 40s.
World War II witnessed an entire halt inside the house building programme as resources were funnelled into replacing and repairing bombed houses and inside the late 1940s the push to re-house families saw a move away from conventional fireplaces in favour in the 'easy to install' electric fire. However as the UK became more prosperous in the 1950s local authorities and private house builders did start to install tiled fireplaces again setting up a regular demand to the slabbed designs produced by members in the National Fireplace Manufacturer's Association, that have been formed in 1945Monogrammed Fireplace Screen. These fireplaces were made into specification as opposed to including any design flair and, from the middle in the decade, perhaps the wooden mantel shelf had disappeared.