Rustic Fireplace Screens -Fireplaces were an important feature of Arts and Crafts design. In the era where the Movement drew its inspiration the fireside was only beginning to be sited on the sidewalls of great halls within the houses of the extremely rich. So the design adopted by Arts and Crafts was obviously a nineteenth century day pastiche of the really was constructed through the Wars of the Roses Rustic Fireplace Screens. Designs were often in brick although stone could possibly be used where it was obviously a local material.
The fireplaces were large, often rounded together an inglenook feel. Bricks would vary in size, with courses laid vertically as well as conventionally or possibly in a herringbone pattern. Later designs often included tiles along with the form of sinuous designs which might be related to Charles Rennie Macintosh and Art Nouveau Rustic Fireplace Screens. Tiles probably have a pastoral scene or a complex flower motif along with the Rockwood Pottery that produced early designs was closely related to Morris & Co, the corporation that William Morris ran from 1875. We still experience the Arts & Crafts legacy in mock Tudor houses, twentieth century wall panelling and old brick fireplaces. Like virtually all styles of the last 190 years the popularity declines just to reappear as much as 100 years later.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh is certainly one of the greatest influences on architecture this century. His much too short career spanned the turn of the century and produced a number of innovative buildings and interiors around his birthplace of Glasgow. Some see Mackintosh as being a modernist, others because the link between Art Nouveau and Art Deco. He was probably neither, drawing his inspiration all the from classical shapes because the new industrial art that has been beginning to prevail throughout Europe.
Mackintosh wasn't just an architect. His design brilliance extended towards the interiors of the buildings he designed. Together with his wife Margaret, Mackintosh considered that the lining layout was as important because the exterior form and designed individual what to compliment the total look of the building. Fireplaces were, in the opinion, the 'glowing focus with decorative and symbolic interest'. It was important for him that all design should meld into the room and turn into personalised for that needs of the owner Rustic Fireplace Screens. His most popular brief was Hill House in Dumbarton, that she designed for that publisher, Blackie. In this house each fireplace differs from the others. The family room design has niches for ornaments, while the fireside within the library links areas of the room to create a whole. Each has been thought through and tailored so that is part of the room, not simply a fitting.
Today's fireplaces within the Mackintosh style often reflect his graphic style as opposed to his design flair. Art Nouveau roses interpreted by Mackintosh are normal features and evoke turn of the century style. His designs for mantelpieces and finished fireplaces are so personal for 'off the shelf' production and may remain unique within the houses where they were installed.
Whilst the category of Charles Rennie Macintosh first comes to mind when early 1900s architecture is mentioned, it is usually Edwin Lutyens who has left the maximum impression on country houses and official buildings within the UK and beyond Rustic Fireplace Screens. Macintosh, from his base in Glasgow rose like a shooting star throughout the turn of the twentieth century just to disappear as rapidly for only 10 to 15 a lot of architectural design. Lutyens, often along with garden designer Gertrude Jykell, produced houses in a wonderful late Victorian / Edwardian vernacular style that still impresses today.
An examination of most of Lutyens Country House designs highlights the importance he, and more importantly his clients, placed on the design of fireplaces. Many of his major, well-known designs - Castle Drogo, Great Dixter, Little Thakeham among others - feature over 10 fireplaces - many engineered to go with the ambience of the room.
Barton St. Mary near East Grinstead is a here's an example. Designed in a rendered, South of England style, Barton St. Mary resembles two cottages joined together. Internally, massive stone inglenooks, insightful oak beams and vaulted ceilings evoke an era much earlier than its actual turn-of-the-twentieth century construction. In the dining room a large fireplace with projecting shelf and converging firesides in herringbone brickwork features a beautiful simplicity that is certainly almost ageless.
Rustic Fireplace Screens
Built for local industrialist, Arthur Hemmingway, Heathcote near Ilkley is altogether an alternative proposition from Barton St. Mary. Finished in local stone, it is an imposingly grand house with echoes of your stately home. Internally neo-classical design reigns with pillars and ornate coving. In the Dining Room we view a fairly easy bolection design using a massive Adamesque fireplace design superimposed over it. This is a strange combination, possibly specified by Mr. Hemingway himself. Bolection designs, making use of their unpretentious moulded shape were highly sought after, some within larger Adam-style designs, others forming the entire fireplace were common in other Lutyens houses - Great Maytham in Kent, Nashdom in Taplow, Berkshire and Temple Dinsley in Hertfordshire. Lutyens was often linked to modernisation of older houses where yet again the simplicity of the bolection design helped blend new with old. Even today, bolection fireplaces have become much admired.
Lutyens designs were undoubtedly extremely influential within the select moneyed class who employed him. However, it had been Minsterstone along with a myriad of other local manufacturers of stone, marble and brick designs who adapted his designs for that smaller fireplaces to cater for that emerging middle class. Many of the fireside manufacturers from this era have disappeared leaving Minsterstone, with its 120-year history as being a lone survivor from a time once the gap between rich and poor was larger than it is today.
The dawning of the twentieth century also saw a number of different stylistic influences on the fireside in a way that few other century had experienced. The heavy, gothic style that so typified the middle of the Victorian era had been manufactured in vast numbers. But present and well-liked by the cognoscenti was the powerful Art Nouveau look, that have taken the united states by storm, pursuing the Paris Exhibition of 1881.
The roots of Art Nouveau lay within the great European capitals of Vienna and Paris in which the artistic elite rebelled up against the constraints of the previous generation. The movement took aboard the cast iron fireplaces, for so long the trade mark of the suburban growth and development of our large cities, and added sinuous ornamentation, which gave these utilitarian items today's look. Tiles on tile sliders began to appear in a insightful designs inspired by rural images as well as classic Art Nouveau references such because the grapevine.
William Morris' Arts & Crafts movement continued to exert an influence well in towards the twentieth century. The inglenook was a well known revival feature of Arts and Crafts' fireplaces because it created seating throughout the fire - the only warm part of the house. In fact Morris' followers liked many features of medieval and Tudor fireplaces that they can adapted and incorporated into their designs - some adding features like overmantels which will never have been part of the original.
The 1920s looked for an alternative approach that combined industry with art. After the First World war, revival had been the name of the game for that middle classes who wanted their suburban houses gentrified with mock Tudor beams and fireplaces. However, the rich along with the artistic longed for designs that reflected the twin ethos of training and leisure.
Art Deco filled this void and came to be with the 1925 Paris based exhibition titled 'L'Exposition Internationale des Arts Deco et Industriels Modernes'. At the time, the design was categorised as Paris 25. The concepts behind the Art Deco included:
The sacrifice of decorative detail to function.
The rejection of history to be replaced by modern ideas
The adaptation and adoption of industry - its designs and methods. Art Deco design was presently translated right into a insightful designs, which used traditional fireplace materials, but in a more spectacular, avant-garde way. Simple understated lines were set off by the use of reflective chrome, lacquered wood or tiles to offer today's feeling, which shouted 'Modern!' without having to be too ornate.
Like many of the other trends, Art Deco somewhat the preserve of the rich. The newly enriched suburban middle classes were prone to have a fairly easy tiled fireplace, normally in green beige or buff. Designs could reflect the Art Deco influence of the Mexican stepped pyramid or may be asymmetric, relying on the social realism movement. Many 1930s tiled fireplaces also featured a wooden surround or mantelshelf in English oak.
In the shires the fire surround was prone to have a local material, - brick within the South of England, stone within the North and tiles around Stoke on Trent. Designs of these areas weren't so relying on decorative trends. Functional features such as bread ovens and hooks for hanging cooking pots lingered on in full or partial use within the country cottage well into the 1930s and 40s.
World War II witnessed a whole halt within the house building programme as resources were funnelled into replacing and repairing bombed houses and within the late 1940s the push to re-house families saw a get off conventional fireplaces in favour of the 'easy to install' electric fire. However because the UK became more prosperous through the 1950s local authorities and private house builders did start to install tiled fireplaces again setting up a regular demand for that slabbed designs produced by members of the National Fireplace Manufacturer's Association, that have been formed in 1945Rustic Fireplace Screens. These fireplaces were made right down to specification as opposed to including any design flair and, by the middle of the decade, perhaps the wooden mantel shelf had disappeared.